If the drive's SCSI ID is #1, yes do select ID#1 as the boot device in the card's BIOS.
The 'black plug' is indeed the terminator. It should be in the last connector of the LVD cable, which it appears to be.
Going through your jumper settings:
- 1-2: ok
- 11-12: ok. You'd open this if you had many SCSI drives to stagger their startup, in order not to overload the power supply as hard drives are most power-hungry at startup
- 15-16: open this one, I think we've determined the setup was not working in SE mode.
- 22-23: I am confused about this one, as Fujitsu says it is shorted by default. I have never handled a 68-pin LVD SCSI Fujitsu, but don't recall seeing a terminator power jumper on the 68-pin LVD drives I was familiar with (mostly Quantum and IBM). On old SE drives, such a jumper would activate the built-in passive terminator required on the last physical device of a given SCSI chain; on a LVD chain, the terminator is external (that 'black plug' you mention), and fully independent of the drive, which shouldn't have to 'supply terminator power to the SCSI bus' as described in the Fujitsu documentation. I'd give it a try with this jumper open. Three terminators in a chain is a recipe for disaster.
The SPIN UP DISK DRIVE option in the controller's BIOS is directly related to jumpers 11-12: if activated, it will send a spin up instruction at given intervals to all your devices, starting with SCSI ID 0. Since the jumper is closed, no need to activate this option, which would only delay your boot process. Some OSes sometimes report boot failure when hard drives take too long to spin up...
I suggest giving it one last try, with jumpers 15-16 and 22-23 opened. If that doesn't work, consider buying a LVD controller.
When you do have the LVD controller, do leave 15-16 open, and try 22-23 in both settings; common sense would say open, but Fujitsu's default setting appears to be closed; perhaps they just need a place to park the jumper?